Undulating Periodisation

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Undulating Periodisation

Post by Beer Jew » Mon Jan 09, 2017 4:01 pm

What are people's thoughts on undulating periodization, particularly as it relates to raw, natural powerlifting.

Further, what are your thoughts on it in relation to the microcycle, mesocycle, macrocycle etc. In the sense of the ideal way (if there is one) in which to use it.

Is it superior to simple block periodization? Does it go hand in hand with block by using it during a microcycle, i.e. Daily Undulating Periodization?

I'm in the process of mapping out the next couple of months, and a primary focus is dropping some weight whilst maintaining strength. Mike Israetel talks about keeping the reps and volume high and the weight moderate, but I worry about spending too much time away from heavier weight.

Keen to hear anyone and everyone's thoughts.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Mon Jan 09, 2017 5:10 pm

Undulating and simple block periodization are essentially the same thing

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by SubClaw » Mon Jan 09, 2017 5:27 pm

How about Dano's (by the way, where the fuck is he?) approach: one lift, six sets, three rep schemes.

1st & 2nd sets: low reps.
3rd & 4th sets: medium reps.
5th & 6th sets: high reps.

Would it work?

Which ranges would work better? (3-6-9, 4-8-12...).

How big should the load drops be? (10%, maybe more?).

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Blaidd Drwg » Mon Jan 09, 2017 5:32 pm

HYOOOGE question in both theory and from a practical standpoint. Mike I is a super bright dude but if you look at the way he practices as opposed to the theory, you'll see very familiar and very simple blocks laid out. (Look at the stuff the Juggaloo's and Max Aita do) . So in practical terms for a PL.....
Shafpocalypse Now wrote:Undulating and simple block periodization are essentially the same thing

^^

Also, it really depends on where the lifter is at in training age, chronological age, weaknesses, strengths how close they are to genetic limitations, *supplementation* etc.

We use very simple Undulating periodization for Masters lifters at the IPF world level. That cohort has training age, chronological age, proximity to genetic limits all working against them and this simple approach still works...That said, almost everyone needs a rehab block on the front of a long period of undulating periodization.

If you look at a dumbed down blocks as

Rehab
Base
Build
Sharpen/Taper/Peak

With each block being between 4 and 12 weeks max.(The S/T/P we've used is about 10 weeks total for raw lifters) Then you've got a basic idea of how to do "block periodzation over the long haul...with the only real difference between Undulating periodization (531531531) being the length of each block segment (1 week as opposed to one month) and the need to preserve motor qualities (or simple back burner them) while you build other ones. There a re a number of very simple ways to do this when your concern is being away from heavy weights. One of them is a thing Jack and I are always in feverish agreement on, the primacy of the warm up and how you manipulate it.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Beer Jew » Mon Jan 09, 2017 6:25 pm

I'm probably being dense BD, but what's undulating about the cycle you laid out? Surely that's basic block periodisation?

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Mon Jan 09, 2017 11:29 pm

At its most basic UP moves from lower volume higher intensity to higher volume lower intensity or vice versa...

At its most basic, BP does the exact same thing

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by powerlifter54 » Mon Jan 09, 2017 11:39 pm

Block periodization is essentially linear periodization, hypertrophy to power to peaking.
Undulating periodization is rotating Rep schemes weekly or by workout.

As Jay Ashman posted on FB this week a study that compared the two, but imho was negated in vale as it didn't attempt to control equal volumes, allowed constant training to RM maximum ever set, and then dropped squatting from one program the last 3 weeks and replaced it with box jumps. These all have as much or greater impact on a program than Rep schemes! Donnie Thompson posted about the definition of Conjugate Periodization and considering myself as close to an expert on old Westside as anybody who didn't train in Columbus, I was surprised to learn Conjugate is about rotating exercises not training methods or rep schemes.

So throwing out newbies, and BD's seniors who seem to thrive on straight l9near periodization, how to train, how to train?

A couple ideas. First specialization is for insects and and big fast strong people who do sports at a high level and even get paid a lot to do it. So there are differences between what an athlete playing a real ball sport does and what a strength athlete or fighter or track and field person does. Second there are big differences between displaying strength or power and building it. Third and finally as far as this rant goes is that volume and rest is as least as important as rep scheme and RPE in any program for any athlete in any sport.

More?
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Mon Jan 09, 2017 11:48 pm

Let's talk a bit about "block periodization" as visualized by Issurin, who basically wrote the books on it.

It is a means to sequence developmental blocks so you don't entirely lose the training effect during a short specialization to bring another property higher.

In field sports, you need aerobic conditioning, strength, power, anaerobic conditioning, etc...blocks.

Aerobic and strength degrade slower than the others, power and anaerobic capacity degrade pretty quickly.

So, let's take A, S, An, P to describe our blocks.

Pre-season

ASASASASPAn might be the lead in to the season...so you start with both a big base (A and S) but also have topped off the P and An tanks to get ready.

In season

APAnS might be the sequence, to help keep competition condition high and relatively stable.

NOW in lifting sports, all of a sudden you have far less qualities to worry about. And all of these qualities basically support each other, so the sequencing is a lot less complicated

Taking BD's example...R=rehab, V=volume block, I = Intensity block, P = Peaking block.

RVIVIVIVIVI [......]P....is what it looks like...you are undulating the entire time. Undulating periodization isn't necessarily daily, but it can be, but a good UP microcycle is basically a fractal of the larger cycle.

Example.

Your V block is 4x weekly.

Squat/Bench 1
Dead 1
Squat/Bench 2
Dead 2

SB1/D1 might be 4 sets of 8 in each, plus accessories (which should be rotated and periodized to shore up weak links)
SB2/D2 might be 5 sets of 5 in each

So, you are undulating your volume on a micro (daily) basis, but also on a mini (weekly) basis

The gist of the matter is this: block training for lifting includes so few different types of training that it looks like undulating periodization when you look at it.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Mon Jan 09, 2017 11:53 pm

I kind of disagree with PL's assertion that block periodization is classical periodization...the sequences are tend to be shorter and specific to coast on one property by building up another....Issurin explains this pretty well in his books, and provides lots of examples, NONE of them are lifters, because of the specialization...some are throwers, some are field sports, some are kayaks.

When asked about lifting sport in an interview, Issurin basically said the last sentence of my previous post.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Blaidd Drwg » Mon Jan 09, 2017 11:59 pm

Shafpocalypse Now wrote:Let's talk a bit about "block periodization" as visualized by Issurin, who basically wrote the books on it.
......The gist of the matter is this: block training for lifting includes so few different types of training that it looks like undulating periodization when you look at it.
That's well done..^I'm not sure most people here are gonna get it though.


Shaf just demonstrated why Block Periodization may be a bit overwrought for lifting sports.

Now an area where thinking in Block Peridization termonolgy/thought process works EXTREMELY WELL is in dealing with the whole athlete. Standard UP can't address the following terribly well.

-Masters athlete moving from geared to raw PL

-Over fat strength athlete dropping classes and addressing health concerns.

-Injured Athlete rehabbing between seasons competing in two or more strength sports such as Highland Games and PL.

-Balancing multiple seasons of sport in a junior athlete with multiple motor deficiencies.

These are situations I've directly gotten my hands dirty with and it's here that I think the more complex thought process of BP serves you well even if you're addressing issues other than strictly motor qualities.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Tue Jan 10, 2017 12:06 am

You can, and maybe should, set up your minicycles to be consistent

For example.

Week 2 of a Volume cycle for the Deadlift might ALWAYS look like this

Deadlift: 10 sets of 3
RDL: 3 sets of 8
Good Morning: 3 sets of 12
Chins: 3 sets of 8

That way if you do this in January, and then again in June, you can see immediately what has changed from block to block.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Tue Jan 10, 2017 12:08 am

BD, I can see the benefit in having a standard nomenclature and calling all of that blocks.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by TomFurman » Tue Jan 10, 2017 12:17 am

BTW for lurkers.. this is fucking GOLD. What you see above is more than you can get from years of searching. Thank you guys for pointing out the obvious and not so obvious.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Blaidd Drwg » Tue Jan 10, 2017 12:20 am

Shafpocalypse Now wrote:BD, I can see the benefit in having a standard nomenclature and calling all of that blocks.
This is the way it seems to work in other sports that have broader needs....

Fernsitance...in Cycling, our "early base" (Dec-Feb) always meant you had about three goals,
fat loss. (Power to Weight ratio)
glossy pedaling (Basic technique at high RPM)
increased work/pain tolerance (Self explanatory)

...cause the next block is gonna be lots of miles in a lot of rain. In the PNW, this is different than say a cyclist in AZ who has no off season, doesn't play winter sports and doesn't tend to gain as much muscle and fat as we did. This was planned for somehwat organically but when I trace back over it, it really does make a huge amount o f sense and adheres to Issurin's principles.

I think of BP as a system of being cognizant of where the needs of the individual athlete are in a particular place in time and which things by necessity MUST precede each other.
Last edited by Blaidd Drwg on Tue Jan 10, 2017 1:31 am, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by I dig big chicks » Tue Jan 10, 2017 1:01 am

I'll address what I do, well, one of the things we do in the gym. We use what I would truthfully call undulating periodization. But we often apply that in blocks.

Our beginning lifters, say, 3-6 months into weightlifting, sports performance, or powerlifting get a very simple program. Once someone has consistent technique and stalls slightly, we train by RPE or Rough percentage work- my rule is that 80% is usually 75-82 %, and etc. An intermediate level athlete will need to learn, but being with me and my coaches, what 80% feels like and can adjust their own weights. This process usually takes six months to a year.

For my intermediate lifters, we follow a 12 week plan. Weeks 1-4 are technique work, rehab work, generally light work in the 70-80% range. We focus in this period on fixing shit that's bad. Two physical characteristics and one technical aspect.

Weeks 5-8 or so are where we apply what we fixed and learned and transition, through high volume, into higher weight ranges. We will work on a weekly basis in the 80-90% range.

Weeks 9-12 are a peak of sorts; we truly peak 3 times a year for intermediate lifters, twice a year foe my advanced lifters (say top 10 in the nation potential). We will start to invert the volume and intensity these weeks, whereas before volume and intensity were directly related- that is, easy intensity was light volume, heavy days were heavy volume. These four weeks, because we'll have a competition situation at the end of week 12, invert the relationship, so our heavy days are lower volume, and we work toward our heavy days being light volume.

The specific aspects of this are undulating percentages and volume. I use these guidelines for volume: less than 50 reps is a light day, 50-75 is moderate volume, 75-100 medium high, 100+ is high volume

Those reps are snatches, cleans, jerks, squats, pulls, presses. Our extras are carefully calculated to not really fuck with recovery, and our extras are conditioning and remedial work.

Our intensity breakdown is as follows: under 70 is warm ups, 70-79% is low, 80-89% is medium, 90-93% is high. We use our judgement and experience with a lifter to push to 93+ on our heavy days, and again, our rule of thumb is to throw some weight on if the sets look too easy, and take some off if the sets look too hard.

So week one through four would be like this: Day 1 High VOlume Medium Intensity, Day two low volume low to medium intensity, Day 3 high intensity low to medium volume, day four medium intensity and low to medium volume.

We deload roughly every fourth week (sometimes every third, sometimes week five or week six depending on the competition schedule, school and work stress, etc)

Volume Undulation: If we're doing 1000 lifts a month, which is pretty low to average for us, we would break the volume into 270 lifts week one, 230 week two, 300 week three, 200 week four (the deload). Our top percentage week one might be 80%, week two 75%, week three 85%, week four 70-75.

Weeks five through eight would generally receive an increase in volume of 10-25%, so let's say 1,250 lifts. This is where the periodization and undulation gets funky and complex. While we could do any number of things, I will generally start this cycle with a lot of volume because we ended with such a little bit before, so like 30% of the lifts week 5, then 24 percent, then 28, then a big reduction for week 8 to 18. Our highest intensity this cycle will be week 5 around 90%, week 6 around 85, week 7 90+, week 8 80%.

Weeks nine through 12 will have a lightly lower increase in volume (or maybe a decrease even if we're in the third or fourth 12 week cycle). But all the volume will be front loaded.

So week nine we'll do 30 Percent of the volume, Week 10 we'll do 25 percent, week three we'll do 25%, week four 20%. That progression is fairly linear, but I can tweak it daily so that the first 2.5 weeks are where most of the volume is. Week nine intensity is 90+ percent, week ten is 90+ with a test mid week for clean and jerk and front squat,%, week three is 90+ percent including a test/ max day at the beginning of the week for snatch and back squat, and week four is 100% for the meet.

We will, of course, mess with this cycle due to meet schedules and everything else. Meets don't conveniently happen every 13 weeks (the week after a meet is very light and focused on movement and recovery).

I do follow BD's advice that first four weeks and treat it as a recovery phase. We do a shit ton of focus on fixing what we fucked up to max out.

The other common breakdown I do was given to me by a former Cuban Coach with an advanced degree in weightlifting coaching from University of Havana. This guy used to teach programming as a three semester course at the graduate level, a one semester class on technique, and a one semester class on the history of technique. He fucking blows my mind everytime I talk to him.

Anyway, since drugs are harder to use internationally these days, and since testing is so good, Columbia and other South American countries have gone to a plan which generally looks like this regarding distribution of intensity:

Week 1: 75-80 tech, 70 strength
Week 2: 70-75 tech, 75-80 Strength
Week 3: 75 tech, 70 str
Week 4: 75 tech, 80 str
Week 5: 75-85 tech, 70-80 st
Week 6: 75-90 tech, 70-85 str
Week 7: 75-80 tech, 70-80 str
Week 8: 75-95 tech, 70-90 str
Week 9: 75-90 tech, 70-85 str
Week 10: 75-90 tech, 70-95 str
Week 11: 75-85 tech, 70-80 str
Week 12: 75-100 tech, 70-100 str
Week 13: 70-80 both

There's no volume guidelines in there as volume is highly dependent on the individual.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by bennyonesix » Tue Jan 10, 2017 1:19 am

Holy shit awesome. Months maybe years worth of study. Thanks everyone.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Sangoma » Tue Jan 10, 2017 2:37 am

I don't know much on undulating periodisation, but can add five cents on blocks.

Block periodisation was introduced for sports that require multiple qualities. Decathlon would be a good example. Lifting, on the other hand, is focused mostly on strength. So blocks training does not make that much sense. Of course, you can call cycles of 15 or 5 reps blocks, but I don't think this is what Issurin had in mind.

In any case, here is a good discussion of the topic.

BLOCK PERIODIZATION – A BREAKTHROUGH OR A MISCONCEPTION
On the other hand, there are many objections to the justification and logic of block periodization. The term "block periodization" is not adequate, and the criticism of the classical theory is method- ologically incorrect because it refers to old bibliographic sources, (and) the opponents are not men- tioned. It is not realistic in practice to work successively on more abilities because of short periods of preparation, there is not enough time to recover after such an effort while the risk of injury is significantly higher. Most importantly, according to the block periodization it is difficult to be fit at the right time, which is the main purpose of periodization. Therefore, one could rather say that block periodization is a misconception, rather than a breakthrough in training.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by powerlifter54 » Tue Jan 10, 2017 2:55 am

Shafpocalypse Now wrote:I kind of disagree with PL's assertion that block periodization is classical periodization...the sequences are tend to be shorter and specific to coast on one property by building up another....Issurin explains this pretty well in his books, and provides lots of examples, NONE of them are lifters, because of the specialization...some are throwers, some are field sports, some are kayaks.

When asked about lifting sport in an interview, Issurin basically said the last sentence of my previous post.

Reading this thread so far i agree there is a LOT of important concepts in here boiled down to bare essentials. IDBC's post took me a few years to glean out Roman's Training of the Weightlifter. And a lot of these posts could be easily presented in a 1-2 hour lecture at a seminar and most of the attendees would have no f'in idea what you were talking about. But a lot of the theory and application here is also tempered by experience, because even though I might disagree on some aspects that shaf or BD posted, if we are talking about a specific sport I would be supportive. And these concepts can get mushy at the boundaries of definitions like hypertrophy, power, peak, rehab/GPP/SPP.

Since a lot has already been covered I am going to lay out a slightly different approach, but nothing ground breaking. I do not believe, with the exception of bodybuilding and in season athletes for the most part, in training individual aspects in a seperate bloc. Yes, very WSB, but also influenced by sport training and no football team only practices offense for 3 weeks, defense the next 3, and special teams the next block. I also believe in a concept I have marked in an old PLUSA that lifts have best Rep ranges , and from other influences that assistance and single limb work can be done and should be done for higher reps, but the complex lifts need to be less than 5 reps. I also believe your training has to be tailored to not only your sport but to the equipment you are going to use. A raw PLer and a multi ply guys trains a bit differently, as does a full pad tackle football player and a flag football player. The classic periodization model has intensity rising but volume dropping over the cycle. I disagree. When I trained LP I did not gain useable strength from 8-12 rep sets (except in some deadlifting when I was younger) and by meet time the hypertrophy was all but gone too after 3x3 peaking blocks. So my approach is to start with a lot of GPP and a volume X in my first of 3-4 meet prep cycles. Over the cycles I would begin to raise the intensity of the volume, and any slight drop in classic lift volume I would make up in SPP assistance. The GPP would drop gradually across the cycle. By meet week after the tapering cycle we would be bigger, faster, and stronger than 12-16 weeks prior. And to be clear, you get stronger not from raising your top set each week but in the volume and intensity of all the work you do. 525x8 is fun and gets the gym bunnies attention but 425/475/525x3 for 3 rotations will make you stronger on meet day. And you will keep your muscle on. Now you won't be able to fight a 5 min round or play 60 snaps on Friday night, Saturday, or Sunday's, but that is just a different requirement.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Blaidd Drwg » Tue Jan 10, 2017 4:29 am

If you peel back the semantic differences, I think there's very little to disagree with here. In my case it's evidenced by the fact I believe in the efficacy of blocks in practice yet I've seen the most basic forms of periodization work extremely well over the long haul.

I look at all training plans as a project and the principles of project management are every bit as applicable as what most people call block training. As PL is hitting on, knowing your toolkit (rep ranges for certain movements) is probably more important than anything.

Bringing it back to single silos of physical capacity, folks like Mike T in PL and Joel Friel in TriathLon use only the most rudimentary modes of block training.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Beer Jew » Tue Jan 10, 2017 8:55 am

I feel like when your parents would have a discussion that you wanted to listen in on, and you were terrified of making a noise in case they stopped talking.

This stuff is pure gold. Once it's finished, someone should nugget it.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by powerlifter54 » Tue Jan 10, 2017 2:14 pm

By the way I do all my training in 4 week blocks. 3 hard and back off except taper block which is meet at end of week 3. By also sticking to the base strength model I never really got out of condition. Post injury or surgery (like now) I just build up volume but am not doing 8-12s. Except in assistance.i do believe in the Conjugate model rotation of exercises but in a much narrower and specific pattern.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by I dig big chicks » Tue Jan 10, 2017 8:07 pm

Some of the discussion above makes me want to add this to the thread. We use hallmark lifts to gauge our progress. Since a true 100% effort is weightlifting is so demanding, we have to use other ways to estimate and predict what we can do, and to give the athlete confidence when we do do the true 100%.

We use 85% x 3 in the snatch as a very high correlation to the 100%, so if you want to snatch 100 kg, you should be able to triple 85 and vice versa (this works only for people who are training for the one rep max).

When we squat, I put in things like 90x3- if you can do 90x3 I assume your 100% is a little low, and will suggest we bump it about 5% for future training sessions. That 90x3 keeps us from putting the physical stress on the organism that a 100% squat does.

I also use assistance lifts to garner prospective maxes. Things like Power cleans, power snatches, lifts from the blocks, etc. I want all of these to be within 10% of the best lift. So if you clean 100 kg from the floor, you should be able to do 90-110 kilos from the blocks. What I see and use is the individual correlations- some lifters will need to hit, say, a PR from the blocks and then can follow it up a week or two later from the floor. I can usually predict what the lifter can do based on their past.

For my powerlifters, we use 90x2 x 5 in the squat, 90x3x 2 sets in the bench, and 85x5 in the deadlift to anticipate a true max level lift. I do not find that rack pulls, floor press, push press, etc have any direct correlation to the lifts with the powerlifters. So we use whatever the predictive sets and percents are to help us plan and program.

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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Blaidd Drwg » Wed Jan 11, 2017 12:55 am

I dig big chicks wrote:
We use 85% x 3 in the snatch as a very high correlation to the 100%, so if you want to snatch 100 kg, you should be able to triple 85 and vice versa (this works only for people who are training for the one rep max)....................

When we squat, I put in things like 90x3- if you can do 90x3 I assume your 100% is a little low, and will suggest we bump it about 5% for future training sessions. That 90x3 keeps us from putting the physical stress on the organism that a 100% squat does.
......................For my powerlifters, we use 90x2 x 5 in the squat, 90x3x 2 sets in the bench, and 85x5 in the deadlift to anticipate a true max level lift..

These aren't far off of what I'd see used for my novice and intermediate folks. The advanced folks we abandon percentage based training relatively quickly and rely more on a running set of expectations based on what we see in the warm up. Transitioning someone form straight % to RPE is a learning process.

A recent change I've made with all my girls and a couple of my dudes is we do a meet warm up for every lift. So basic general W/U then a meet progression (with some variables like kilo loading thrown in from time to time, tnx for that Jack) warm up to either the last single before an opener or in some cases for those who mentally can't handle heavy weight every session to the second to last single before an opener.

For an intermediate guy who's squat opener is say 475, a squat session would start with this w/u progression:

135xmeh
225x4-5
315x3
365x1
405x1
440x1

The volume of the 5 total reps at close to working weight doesn't throw anything off too badly, we get some Post Activation Potentiation bennies when we drop down to hit volume and we get a very good look at how the RPE of that top warm up changes over time. As we've all experienced, the first few sets of a warm up may feel like dogshit but you hit those last few w/u reps or the first working set and the lights come on. I'm ever more a believer in the primacy of the warm up as an indicator that warrants tracking.
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Re: Undulating Periodisation

Post by Shafpocalypse Now » Wed Jan 11, 2017 3:09 am

I think I'm just disagreeing on small stuff and nomenclature. The big picture stuff everyone else is talking about is all similar

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Re: Undulating Periodization

Post by powerlifter54 » Wed Jan 11, 2017 4:29 am

I dig big chicks wrote: Since a true 100% effort is weightlifting is so demanding...

For my powerlifters, we use 90x2 x 5 in the squat, 90x3x 2 sets in the bench, and 85x5 in the deadlift to anticipate a true max level lift. I do not find that rack pulls, floor press, push press, etc have any direct correlation to the lifts with the powerlifters. So we use whatever the predictive sets and percents are to help us plan and program.
Pretty much spot on. In one of my old PLUSA's in the garage somewhere is an article that showed some decent research on BP best predicted by triples, squat by doubles, and deadlift by singles. I took that and decided quickly my money sets would be so done in those ranges. Wish I had thought of 90x2x5 since I used 95x2 and idbc's idea I I like better since it would both build and display strength.

One problem was the DL for me. My build made me very susceptible to erector fatigue, and heavy dls killed me for a few weeks. So I went to guess what...around 85x5. I finnessed it a bit as I went to 85-<90 for 3 standing on plates. Worked my start without frying my back. I was a great meet lifter, I could always shine on meet day, so I didn't worry about DL. In fact I knew I could pull right at 100 less than my meet squat and almost always did. Point is to use guidelines like this, modify for you, but keep in mind this is for lifters not real sport folks. One last thing I didn't use percents except for checking myself. just used real bar weights I thought I could handle.

This past weekend I heard a great concept from a pastor. (Sorry heathens) "experience isn't the best teacher, it is the most brutal teacher. Faith is the best teacher." I learned awful lot from hard experience. And my crashes and burns were often spectacular. But taking on faith things you see like in this thread that we all come to agreement on is a great way to avoid wasting your training efforts and saving yourself humiliation on the platform, race, or field. You will have enough things to work out in your own or your athlete's training so grab the low hanging fruit and keep moving forward.
Last edited by powerlifter54 on Wed Jan 11, 2017 5:50 pm, edited 1 time in total.
"Start slowly, then ease off". Tortuga Golden Striders Running Club, Pensacola 1984.

"But even snake wrestling beats life in the cube, for me at least. In measured doses."-Lex

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